May 28, 2024

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Programming by Illustration – Visual Interfaces

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In the mid 1970s Smith released the system of Programming by Illustration with a plan named Pygmalion, Smith elaborated on this in View What I Do: Programming by Demonstration (Chapter 1). This demonstrated the want to explain algorithms as a result of concrete illustrations alternatively than abstractly. ‘Example-dependent Programming: a pertinent visual solution for learning to program’ (Guibert et al, 2004) reveal and expands on Smiths operate with an case in point demonstrating how quantities are unsuccessful to reveal the concept behind them. The instance is a numerical representation of a triangle. This representation is ‘fregean’ for the reason that it does not show the notion of a triangle. Up coming to this is a diagram of the triangle that does demonstrate the concept. Next to this is a diagram of the triangle that does demonstrate the strategy, this is referred to as ‘analogical’ representation due to the fact it incorporates the context of the details. Which include the context of the details allows a individual to find meanings or relationships in the facts which would not usually be apparent. (Hanna, 2005) and (Elliott, 2006)supply an interface for immediate manipulation of designs in this analogical way by creating an interactive triangle manipulation illustration utilizing the Haskell functional programming language.

Semantic net languages enable for the context of the data to be represented in files and so make it attainable to characterize details in an analogical way, as perfectly as allowing two way conversation, primary to an improvement in information discovery.

The development of visual consumer interfaces has been a significant step forward. The use of pictorial metaphors these as folders to depict a assortment of data files has drastically aided human pc conversation. Pictorial metaphors give visual feedback so the person is aware what the computer software system is performing. This approach can be utilised far more dynamically in simulations. Simulations symbolize the serious planet dilemma and offer regular opinions to the person on how the technique is progressing. In this perception, all software program should really be regarded as a simulation. Pictorial metaphors are static, even though a users’ psychological product is manufactured up of mental pictures connected together by a established of policies. The person operates a psychological design like a simulation. Static person interfaces rely on a person to string together photos into a psychological product which the right way signifies what the process is doing. A user could crank out a psychological design in reaction to user interface metaphors which is inconsistent with the procedure design.

Simulation can support to make sure that the designers’ design, procedure model and users’ model are all the exact same. This topic is explored in [Crapo et al. 2000 and 2002] and is the foundation of the visualisation strategies utilized to enable the user to make and understand types that are subsequently translated into program representations. This is also explained in chapter just one of Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration [Cypher, 1993], clarifies how the Pygmalion language attempts to bridge the hole amongst the programmer’s psychological design of a topic and what the pc can accept. The creator of this technique David Smith went on to produce office oriented icons as aspect of the Xerox’s “Star” laptop undertaking.

My analysis centered on these concepts is obtainable at http://www.cems.uwe.ac.british isles/amrc/seeds/Visualisation.htm

and my illustrations at http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/~phale/InteractiveSVGExamples.htm

References

Smith, D. C., 1977. A Laptop Plan to Product and Promote Artistic Imagined. Basel: Birkhauser.

Smith, D. C., 1993. Pygmalion: An Executable Digital Blackboard. In: A. Cypher, ed. Look at What I Do: Programming by Demonstration. MIT Push, Chapter 1 http://www.acypher.com/wwid/Chapters/01Pygmalion.html – ISBN:0262032139.

Guibert, N., Girard, P., Guittet, L., 2004. Illustration-based mostly Programming: a pertinent visual solution for finding out to method. Proceedings of the operating convention on Advanced visual interfaces. pp 358-361 – ISBN:1-58113-867-9.

Hanna, K., 2005. A document-centered atmosphere for Haskell. 17th Intercontinental Workshop on Implementation and Software of Practical Languages IFL 2005 Dublin, Ireland – September 19-21 2005.

Elliott C., – Practical Programming by Interacting with Tangible Values – http://conal.internet/papers/Eros – Conal Elliott – April 8, 2006.

Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., Willemain, T. R., 2002. Visualization and Modelling for Smart Units. In: C. T. Leondes, ed. Intelligent Programs: Technologies and Apps, Quantity I Implementation Strategies, 2002 pp 53-85.

Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., Willemain, T. R., 2000. Visualization and the course of action of modeling: a cognitive-theoretic look at. Conference on Understanding Discovery in Details – Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGKDD global conference on Understanding discovery and facts mining pp 218-226.

Cypher, A., 1993. Enjoy What I Do Programming by Demonstration. MIT Press, Chapter 1 http://www.acypher.com/wwid/Chapters/01Pygmalion.html – ISBN:0262032139.

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